Lesson 36 : Adverb Clause

§ Adverb Clause

來形容上述詞類,這類從句稱為「副詞從句」Adverb Clause。

 1. Adverb Clause of Time
 2. Adverb Clause of Place
 3. Adverb Claued of Reason
 4. Adverb Clause of Result
 5. Adverb Clause of Purpose
 6. Adverb Clause of Manner
 7. Adverb Clause of Concession
 8. Adverb Clause of Comparison
 9. Adverb Clause of Condition

1. Adverb Clause of Time

  when, while, whenever, as, as soon as, once, 
  as long as, until(till), since, after, before
  When money speaks, truth keeps silence.
  * "when"意指「當﹝一剎那﹞」。
  * 副詞從句可放在主句前或後,放在主句前,通常用逗號與主句隔開。
  * 這例句運用擬人法。
  Come when you please.
  Strike while the iron is hot.﹝打鐵趁熱。﹞
  * "while"意指「當﹝一段時間﹞」。
  When (he was) young, he was not happy.
  * 副詞從句的動詞用be,而又與主要子句的主語相同,則副詞從句的主語
    及be 動詞可一起省略。
  I learned English while (I was) in London.
  Who took your place while you were ill? 
  * 病了一段時間,不能用 "when"。
  Whenever you go, I will follow you.
  * "whenever" 意指「無論何時」。
  You may come whenever you like.
  I read the letter as I walked along the river.
  * "as" 意指「一邊……一邊……」
  His voice trembled as he spoke the last sentence.
  * "as" 意指 "when"。
  As soon as the burglar came into my room, I caught him.
  * "as soon as" 意指「一……就……」﹝兩種動作或變化的時間極短。﹞
  I shall tell him as soon as he comes.
  Once you know him, you will like him.
  * "once" 意指「一旦﹝兩種動作或變化的時差極短。﹞ 

  Once you show any fear, he will attack you.
  I love you as long as I live.
  * "as long as" 意指「只要」或「有……之久」。
  I shall never forget your kindness as long as I live.
  Wait here until I come back.
  * "until" 意指「直到」。
  * "till" 與 "until" 的意思一樣, "until" 較鄭重其事。
  They never know the worth of liberty till they lose it.
  He has not been well since he returned from Malaya.
  * "since" 意指「自從」。
  * 通常,主句用 "present perfect tense" ,從句用 "simple past tense"。
  We have both changed since we parted.
  It is five years since I saw her last.
  How long is it since he went to London? 
  * 有些文法書認為主句所表達的,與其說是時間的經過,不如說是
    時間的長短,因此應用 Simple Present Tense 。例如:
    It is ten years since I last saw him. 
    或 How long is it since you had a raise in salary ? 
    It has been ten years since I last saw him. 
    或 How long has it been since you had a raise in salary? 
    則可以用Simple Present Tense。例如:
    She is nervous about riding in a car since she was involved
    in the car accident.
  I left before he arrived. ( 或 I had left before he arrived.)
  He arrived after I left. ( 或 He arrived after I had left.)

2. Adverb Clause of Place

  where, wherever, whence, whither
  Where there is a will, there is a way.﹝有志者,事竟成。﹞
  Put the book where it was.
  The beautiful sight greets us wherever we look.
  * "wherever" 意指「無論何處」。
  * 本句運用擬人法。

  Sit wherever you like.
  Don't ask me whence I came.﹝不要問我從哪裡來。﹞
  * "whence" 意指「從哪裡來」。
  Go back whence you came.﹝歸去由來處。﹞
  A rudder guides the ship whither it wills.
  * "whither" 意指「到哪裡去」。

3. Adverb Clause of Reason

  because, since, as, for, seeing(that)
  He did it because he thought it right.
  * "because" 意指「因為」;它所帶出的原由是說話者認為聽者不知道的。
  I love you because you understand me.
  Since everybody is present, we may begin our discussion.
  * "since" 意指「因為」;它所帶出的原由是說話者認為聽者已經知道的。
  Since we have no money, we cannot buy it.
  As I shall be here again tomorrow, I will not stay now.
  * "as" 意指「因為」;它所帶出的原由是說話者認為聽者已經知道的。
  She stayed at home as she had no car.
  He did not come, for he was ill.
  * "for" 意指「因為」;不可放在句首;前面常置逗號。
  We cannot go, for it is raining.
※ 依表示理由或原因的強度比較:because → since → as → for
  Seeing (that) he says so, it may be true.
  He could not ask questions, seeing it was none of his 

4. Adverb Clause of Result

  so that, so…that, such…that

  The train was late, so that I could not keep my word.
  * "so that" 意指「因此」或「以致」﹝with the result that﹞。
  Turn it from time to time, so that it may be cooked alike 
  on both sides.
  He was so excited that he could not sleep.
  * "so" 後接形容詞或副詞。
  Oxygen is so important to life that we cannot live 
  without it.
  He is such a good teacher that every student likes him.
  * "such" 後接名詞。

  He is such a liar that no one believes him.

5. Adverb Clause of Purpose

  that, so that, in order that, lest, for fear(that) 
  He studies hard that he may pass the examination.
  * "that", "so that" 及 "in order that" 皆意指「以便」或「為了」。
  * 使用"that", "so that" 及 "in order that":
    從句的動詞形態是: will, can, may, shall + root form;
    would, could, might, should + root form
  They hurried that they might not miss the train.
  He always takes careful notes so that he may go over 
  them after class.
  I went out for a walk so that I might think the matter over 
  in the fresh morning air.

  Finish this in order that you can start another.
  He raised his hard in order that the bus might stop.
  I will not make a noise lest I should wake the child.
  * "lest" 意指「以免」。
  * 使用"lest", "for fear that":
    should, might + root form
  The farmer tied his horse to the tree lest it should 
  run away.
   I put the milk on the shelf for fear (that) the cat 
  might get at it.
  * "for fear (that)" 意指「唯恐」。

  I took an umbrella with me for fear that it should rain.

6. Adverb Clause of Concession

  though, although, even if, even though, however
  Though it is cheap, I do not buy it.
  Though he tried hard, he was not successful.
  Although he is young, he is wise.
  * "although" 與 "though" 的意思一樣,而 "although"的語氣較為堅定。
  * "although" 多用於句首。
  Although it was so cold, he went out without an overcoat.
※ 在中文裡,使用了「雖然」,隨即使用「但是」。
   在英文裡,用了 "although"或 "though",不能再使用 "but";
   用了 "but",就不能再使用 "although"或 "though"。
 1. Although (Though) my heart is breaking, I must smile.
 2. My heart is breaking, but I must smile.
 3. Although (Though) my heart is breaking, yet (still) I 
    must smile.
 4. My heart is breaking, yet (still) I must smile.
 5. Although (Though) my heart is breaking, but I must smile.
  * "yet" "still" 副詞。
  Even if you fail, you will have gained experience.
  * "even if" 意指「即使」。

  Even though it rains, I will go.
  * "even though" 意指「即使」。
  However difficult it may be, we will do it.
  * "however" 意指「不管怎樣」。

7. Adverb Clause of Manner

  as, as if, as though
  You should pronounce this word as your teacher 
  pronounces it.
  * "as" 意指「一如﹝完全一樣﹞」
  * 上句可改為:
    You should pronounce this word as your teacher does it.
  I have done it as it should be done.
  Do in Rome as the Romans do.﹝入鄉隨俗。﹞
  He acts as if he were crazy.
  * "as if"意指「恰如﹝並非完全一樣﹞」。
  * "as if" 從句的動詞用假設語氣,因此用 "were"。
    以前,英文文法規定,在 as if 從句中要用假設方式,例如:
    It looks as if it would rain.
    It looks as if it will rain.
  The baby laughed as if he had understood your expression.
  He speaks English as though he were an Englishman.
  * "as though" 意指「恰如」。
  They talked as though they had been friends for years.

8. Adverb Clause of Comparison

  as…as, so…as, than
  He is as poor as a church mouse.
  * 「教堂老鼠」意指沒有東西吃的老鼠。
  I am as busy as a bee.
  He is as poor as you (are).
※ 若從句與主句的動詞時態相同,則 "are" 可隱藏;
   若從句與主句的動詞時態不不同,則 "are" 不可隱藏。
   He is as poor as you were.﹝他現在一如你過去那麼窮。﹞
   He was as poor as you are.﹝他過去一如你現在那麼窮。﹞
   He was as poor as you (were).﹝他過去一如你過去那麼窮。﹞
  She is as tall as he (is).
  She is not as tall as he (is).
  She is not so tall as he (is).
  * "as…as" 在肯定句或否定句中皆可用,而 "so…as" 只在否定句中使用。
  I cannot do it so quickly as you.
  Mr. Lee is not so old as he looks.
※ 在未介紹 "than" 這個從屬連詞的用法前,先介紹形容詞的比較級

    1. 原級 Positive Degree
    2. 比較級 Comparative Degree
    3. 最高級 Superlative Degree
※ 形容詞的比較級和最高級的形成規則如下:

   1. 單音節詞:
      a) 通常在原級後加 er 成比較級,加 est 成最高級。例如:
         great → greater → greatest
         tall → taller → tallest
      b) 若以 e 收尾,則加 r 成比較級,加 st 成最高級。例如:
         large → larger → largest
      c) 若以輔音字母收尾,而輔音字母前是元音字母,則先重複輔音
         字母,加 er 成比較級,加 est 成最高級。例如:
         big → bigger → biggest
         fat → fatter → fattest

    2. 雙音節詞:
      a) 通常在原級後加 er 成比較級,加 est 成最高級。例如:
         clever → cleverer → cleverest
         narrow → narrower → narrowest
      b) 若以 e 收尾,則加 r 成比較級,加 st 成最高級。例如:
         able → abler → ablest
      c) 若以 y 收尾,而 y 前是輔音字母,則改 y 為i ,加 er 成
         比較級,加est 成最高級。例如:
         happy → happier → happiest
         lucky → luckier → luckiest

    3. 多音節詞:
         在前面加 more 成比較級,加 most 成最高級。例如:
         beautiful → more beautiful → most beautiful
         important → more important → most important
    4. 還有一些單詞的比較級和最高級是不規則的:
good / well
bad / ill
many / much
farther / further
farthest / furthest
older / elder
oldest / eldest
  He is older than I.
  Mary is two years younger than I.
  Two heads are better than one.

9. Adverb Clause of Condition

  if, in case, so long as, on condition (that), 
  provided that, providing, suppose, supposing, unless
  If you go away, I will not cry.
  * "if" 意指「如果」。
  * 從句的動詞用現在時態表示將來發生的事情。
  In case he gives me a phone call, tell him that 
  I will call him back.
  * "in case" 意指「萬一」。
  So long as you keep the book clean, you may borrow it.
  * "so long as" 意指「只要」。
  I will sell you this camera on condition that you pay 
  in cash.
  * "on condition (that)" 意指「在……條件下」。
  I will go provided that you go.
  * "provided (that)" 意指「假使」。
  I will do so providing you agree.
  * "providing" 意指「假使」。
  Suppose she refuses, what shall we do?
  * "suppose" 意指「假使」。
  Supposing he cannot come, who will do the work?
  * "supposing" 意指「假使」。
  You will fail unless you work harder.
  * "unless" 意指「除非」。
※ 根據條件副詞從句所表示的假設情況是否可能實現,可分以下
A. 表示假設情況有可能或很可能實現
句式:從句﹝if + 動詞現在式﹞ / 主句﹝will / may /… + 原型﹞ 
  If I have time, I will visit you.
  If it rains, bring me my umbrella.
B. 表示假設情況不可能實現並且跟現在的事實相反
句式:從句﹝if + 動詞過去式﹞ / 主句﹝would / should + 原型﹞
  If I had money, I should lend you some.
  If I were a bird, I would fly to you at once.
  If I were a king, you would be a queen.
  If I knew English, I would talk with the American businessman.
C. 假設情況不可能實現並且跟過去的事實相反

句式:從句﹝if + had + 過去分詞﹞ / 主句﹝would / should 
       + have + 過去分詞﹞
  If you had reached the station earlier, you should have 
  caught the train.
  If I had seen him yesterday, I would have told him the news.



1. 當他昨天來時,我已完成我的功課。
2. 他無論住在哪裡,他都會快樂。
3. 我們不能去,因為現正下雨。
4. 這河水冰凍得很堅固,因此孩子能在上面行走。
5. 為了準時到達,他們提早出發。
6. 即使天氣很熱,我們必須外出。
7. 她微微一笑,好像看透了我的想法。
8. 事實勝於雄辯。
9. 假使你又失敗了,別灰心。
10. 如果你是皇帝,你會做什麼?