1. Adverb Clause of Time
2. Adverb Clause of Place
3. Adverb Claued of Reason
4. Adverb Clause of Result
5. Adverb Clause of Purpose
6. Adverb Clause of Manner
7. Adverb Clause of Concession
8. Adverb Clause of Comparison
9. Adverb Clause of Condition
Clause of Time
when, while, whenever, as, as soon as, once,
as long as, until(till), since, after, before
When money speaks, truth keeps silence.
Come when you please.
Strike while the iron is hot.﹝打鐵趁熱。﹞
When (he was) young, he was not happy.
I learned English while (I was) in London.
Who took your place while you were ill?
* 病了一段時間，不能用 "when"。
Whenever you go, I will follow you.
* "whenever" 意指「無論何時」。
You may come whenever you like.
I read the letter as I walked along the river.
* "as" 意指「一邊……一邊……」
His voice trembled as he spoke the last sentence.
* "as" 意指 "when"。
As soon as the burglar came into my room, I caught him.
* "as soon as" 意指「一……就……」﹝兩種動作或變化的時間極短。﹞
I shall tell him as soon as he comes.
Once you know him, you will like him.
* "once" 意指「一旦﹝兩種動作或變化的時差極短。﹞
Once you show any fear, he will attack you.
I love you as long as I live.
* "as long as" 意指「只要」或「有……之久」。
I shall never forget your kindness as long as I live.
Wait here until I come back.
* "until" 意指「直到」。
* "till" 與 "until" 的意思一樣， "until" 較鄭重其事。
They never know the worth of liberty till they lose it.
He has not been well since he returned from Malaya.
* "since" 意指「自從」。
* 通常，主句用 "present perfect tense" ，從句用 "simple past tense"。
We have both changed since we parted.
It is five years since I saw her last.
How long is it since he went to London?
時間的長短，因此應用 Simple Present Tense 。例如：
It is ten years since I last saw him.
或 How long is it since you had a raise in salary ?
It has been ten years since I last saw him.
或 How long has it been since you had a raise in salary?
則可以用Simple Present Tense。例如：
She is nervous about riding in a car since she was involved
in the car accident.
I left before he arrived. ( 或 I had left before he arrived.)
He arrived after I left. ( 或 He arrived after I had left.)
Clause of Place
where, wherever, whence, whither
Where there is a will, there is a way.﹝有志者，事竟成。﹞
Put the book where it was.
The beautiful sight greets us wherever we look.
* "wherever" 意指「無論何處」。
Sit wherever you like.
Don't ask me whence I came.﹝不要問我從哪裡來。﹞
* "whence" 意指「從哪裡來」。
Go back whence you came.﹝歸去由來處。﹞
A rudder guides the ship whither it wills.
* "whither" 意指「到哪裡去」。
Clause of Reason
because, since, as, for, seeing(that)
He did it because he thought it right.
* "because" 意指「因為」；它所帶出的原由是說話者認為聽者不知道的。
I love you because you understand me.
Since everybody is present, we may begin our discussion.
* "since" 意指「因為」；它所帶出的原由是說話者認為聽者已經知道的。
Since we have no money, we cannot buy it.
As I shall be here again tomorrow, I will not stay now.
* "as" 意指「因為」；它所帶出的原由是說話者認為聽者已經知道的。
She stayed at home as she had no car.
He did not come, for he was ill.
* "for" 意指「因為」；不可放在句首；前面常置逗號。
We cannot go, for it is raining.
※ 依表示理由或原因的強度比較：because → since → as → for
Seeing (that) he says so, it may be true.
He could not ask questions, seeing it was none of his
Clause of Result
so that, so…that, such…that
The train was late, so that I could not keep my word.
* "so that" 意指「因此」或「以致」﹝with the result that﹞。
Turn it from time to time, so that it may be cooked alike
on both sides.
He was so excited that he could not sleep.
* "so" 後接形容詞或副詞。
Oxygen is so important to life that we cannot live
He is such a good teacher that every student likes him.
* "such" 後接名詞。
He is such a liar that no one believes him.
Clause of Purpose
that, so that, in order that, lest, for fear(that)
He studies hard that he may pass the examination.
* "that", "so that" 及 "in order that" 皆意指「以便」或「為了」。
* 使用"that", "so that" 及 "in order that"：
從句的動詞形態是： will, can, may, shall + root form；
would, could, might, should + root form
They hurried that they might not miss the train.
He always takes careful notes so that he may go over
them after class.
I went out for a walk so that I might think the matter over
in the fresh morning air.
Finish this in order that you can start another.
He raised his hard in order that the bus might stop.
I will not make a noise lest I should wake the child.
* "lest" 意指「以免」。
* 使用"lest", "for fear that"：
should, might + root form
The farmer tied his horse to the tree lest it should
I put the milk on the shelf for fear (that) the cat
might get at it.
* "for fear (that)" 意指「唯恐」。
I took an umbrella with me for fear that it should rain.
Clause of Concession
though, although, even if, even though, however
Though it is cheap, I do not buy it.
Though he tried hard, he was not successful.
Although he is young, he is wise.
* "although" 與 "though" 的意思一樣，而 "although"的語氣較為堅定。
* "although" 多用於句首。
Although it was so cold, he went out without an overcoat.
在英文裡，用了 "although"或 "though"，不能再使用 "but"；
用了 "but"，就不能再使用 "although"或 "though"。
1. Although (Though) my heart is breaking, I must smile.
2. My heart is breaking, but I must smile.
3. Although (Though) my heart is breaking, yet (still) I
4. My heart is breaking, yet (still) I must smile.
5. Although (Though) my heart is breaking, but I must smile.
* "yet" "still" 副詞。
Even if you fail, you will have gained experience.
* "even if" 意指「即使」。
Even though it rains, I will go.
* "even though" 意指「即使」。
However difficult it may be, we will do it.
* "however" 意指「不管怎樣」。
Clause of Manner
as, as if, as though
You should pronounce this word as your teacher
* "as" 意指「一如﹝完全一樣﹞」
You should pronounce this word as your teacher does it.
I have done it as it should be done.
Do in Rome as the Romans do.﹝入鄉隨俗。﹞
He acts as if he were crazy.
* "as if"意指「恰如﹝並非完全一樣﹞」。
* "as if" 從句的動詞用假設語氣，因此用 "were"。
以前，英文文法規定，在 as if 從句中要用假設方式，例如：
It looks as if it would rain.
It looks as if it will rain.
The baby laughed as if he had understood your expression.
He speaks English as though he were an Englishman.
* "as though" 意指「恰如」。
They talked as though they had been friends for years.
Clause of Comparison
as…as, so…as, than
He is as poor as a church mouse.
I am as busy as a bee.
He is as poor as you (are).
※ 若從句與主句的動詞時態相同，則 "are" 可隱藏；
若從句與主句的動詞時態不不同，則 "are" 不可隱藏。
He is as poor as you were.﹝他現在一如你過去那麼窮。﹞
He was as poor as you are.﹝他過去一如你現在那麼窮。﹞
He was as poor as you (were).﹝他過去一如你過去那麼窮。﹞
She is as tall as he (is).
She is not as tall as he (is).
She is not so tall as he (is).
* "as…as" 在肯定句或否定句中皆可用，而 "so…as" 只在否定句中使用。
I cannot do it so quickly as you.
Mr. Lee is not so old as he looks.
※ 在未介紹 "than" 這個從屬連詞的用法前，先介紹形容詞的比較級
1. 原級 Positive Degree
2. 比較級 Comparative Degree
3. 最高級 Superlative Degree
a) 通常在原級後加 er 成比較級，加 est 成最高級。例如：
great → greater → greatest
tall → taller → tallest
b) 若以 e 收尾，則加 r 成比較級，加 st 成最高級。例如：
large → larger → largest
字母，加 er 成比較級，加 est 成最高級。例如：
big → bigger → biggest
fat → fatter → fattest
a) 通常在原級後加 er 成比較級，加 est 成最高級。例如：
clever → cleverer → cleverest
narrow → narrower → narrowest
b) 若以 e 收尾，則加 r 成比較級，加 st 成最高級。例如：
able → abler → ablest
c) 若以 y 收尾，而 y 前是輔音字母，則改 y 為i ，加 er 成
happy → happier → happiest
lucky → luckier → luckiest
在前面加 more 成比較級，加 most 成最高級。例如：
beautiful → more beautiful → most beautiful
important → more important → most important
He is older than I.
Mary is two years younger than I.
Two heads are better than one.
Clause of Condition
if, in case, so long as, on condition (that),
provided that, providing, suppose, supposing, unless
If you go away, I will not cry.
* "if" 意指「如果」。
In case he gives me a phone call, tell him that
I will call him back.
* "in case" 意指「萬一」。
So long as you keep the book clean, you may borrow it.
* "so long as" 意指「只要」。
I will sell you this camera on condition that you pay
* "on condition (that)" 意指「在……條件下」。
I will go provided that you go.
* "provided (that)" 意指「假使」。
I will do so providing you agree.
* "providing" 意指「假使」。
Suppose she refuses, what shall we do?
* "suppose" 意指「假使」。
Supposing he cannot come, who will do the work?
* "supposing" 意指「假使」。
You will fail unless you work harder.
* "unless" 意指「除非」。
句式：從句﹝if + 動詞現在式﹞ / 主句﹝will / may /… + 原型﹞
If I have time, I will visit you.
If it rains, bring me my umbrella.
句式：從句﹝if + 動詞過去式﹞ / 主句﹝would / should + 原型﹞
If I had money, I should lend you some.
If I were a bird, I would fly to you at once.
If I were a king, you would be a queen.
If I knew English, I would talk with the American businessman.
句式：從句﹝if + had + 過去分詞﹞ / 主句﹝would / should
+ have + 過去分詞﹞
If you had reached the station earlier, you should have
caught the train.
If I had seen him yesterday, I would have told him the news.